MicroRNAs对胰岛素合成、分泌及其信号通路影响的研究进展
栏目:医学资讯 发布时间:2019-10-24 浏览量: 295
【提要】 MicroRNAs是一种长度在19~23个核苷酸左右的非编码小分子RNA,通过抑制靶mRNA的表达或翻译,调控人体30%以上基因的表达。

【提要】 MicroRNAs是一种长度在19~23个核苷酸左右的非编码小分子RNA,通过抑制靶mRNA的表达或翻译,调控人体30%以上基因的表达。MicroRNAs的表达异常可导致多种疾病,包括糖尿病。胰岛素是人体唯一降血糖激素,其分泌不足及作用缺陷会引起T2DM。胰岛β细胞中有多种MicroRNAs表达,这些MicroRNAs可调节胰岛素的合成与分泌,影响胰岛β细胞增殖。另外,胰岛素靶组织上的MicroRNAs可通过调节胰岛素信号通路影响胰岛素的作用。由于MicroRNAs具有组织特异性,并且在不同疾病中会有相应的表达改变,因此MicroRNAs有作为多种疾病的生物标记及治疗靶点的潜力。本文将对在MicroRNAs在调控胰岛素的分泌、合成及作用方面作一综述。

【关键词】微RNAs;糖尿病;胰岛素分泌;胰岛素合成;胰岛素信号通路

【Summary】MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs of 19-23 nucleotides, and regulate up to 30% of human genes by inhibiting target mRNAs expression or translation. Aberrant expression of microRNAs has been implicated to play a role in many diseases, such as diabetes. Insulin is the only hormone that reduces blood glucose. Defects in insulin action and insulin secretion are two features of type 2 diabetes. microRNAs expression in pancreatic β-cells, were reported to regulate insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell proliferation, and microRNAs in peripheral tissues influence the insulin effect through regulating insulin signaling pathway. The tissue specificity of miRNAs and aberrant expression in different diseases provided potential targets for diagnosis and treatment. In the present mini review, the roles of miRNA in insulin secretion, biosynthesis and its signaling pathway were introduced.

【Key words】MicroRNAs; Disbetes; Insulin secretion; Insulin production; Insulin signaling pathway